About Vanadium

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Vanadium is a strategic metal primarily used as a strengthening alloy to steel and titanium. Small amounts of vanadium, added to steel makes it stronger, tougher and lighter.

Vanadium ore 23V

Vanadium Explained

Vanadium in its pure form is a soft, grey, ductile element primarily derived from mined iron ore and steel slag. A small amount of Vanadium (typically 0.04 – 4% in steel composition) forms carbides in steel and promotes fine grain size, a process which imparts hardness, wear resistance, seismic resistance and increased strength to the steel.

Strategic Characteristics / Applications

Improves Tensile Strength

Most effective alloy for increasing the strength of reinforcing bars used for buildings, tunnels, and bridges.

Increases Weather Resistance

Natural properties make vanadium alloys durable in extreme temperature environments and corrosion resistant.

Supports Fuel Efficiency

High strength-to-weight ratio make vanadium a vital component in the manufacturing of auto-motive and aviation industries - increases fuel efficiency and durability.

Limits Regular Wear and Tear

High-strength vanadium alloys are used extensively in equipment where abrasion resistance and toughness are necessary to operate in unforgiving environments.

Uses: Steel

Vanadium makes steel stronger, tougher and lighter. Almost 91% of vanadium is used in the steel industry.

Steel Production Chart
  • We project growth in global steel production from 2017-2025 to be a modest 2% per year.
  • Growth in global steel production rates have fueled 85% of the increase in vanadium consumption from 2001 to 2017.
  • Increasing intensity of vanadium use coupled with specific end-use growth drivers will allow vanadium demand to continue to expand.

Market Outlook

Market Chart
  • Projections suggest production of vanadium will continue to run below consumption of vanadium through 2020.
  • Global inventories have become very tight on the back of supply side rationalizations over the past two years.
  • There will be a need for new primary mined vanadium capacity to come to market. Based on history it will be a challenge for new capacity to come online.

Other Uses

  • High strength steel structures
  • Rebar for construction
  • Buildings, bridges, tunnels
  • Automotive parts
  • Aviation and aerospace
  • Pipelines
  • Power lines and Power pylons
  • Chemical plants, oil refineries, offshore-platforms
  • Missiles and defense
  • Rail lines, Railway cars, Cargo containers
  • Construction machinery and equipment
  • Ships

Vanadium Redox Flow Batteries

The vanadium redox (and redox flow) battery is a type of rechargeable flow battery that uses vanadium ions in different oxidation states to store chemical potential energy. Vanadium redox flow batteries, which use vanadium ions in different states of oxidation to store potential chemical energy are considered to be a cost-competitive alternative to lithium-ion technology for large-scale, long duration energy storage.

With power plants rapidly changing their power output to keep the grid in balance, they deviate from their most efficient operating point, increasing fuel use and emissions. A viable and cost-efficient solution it to take advantage of renewable energy storage and release it to the grid at the optimal time to avoid shortfalls and blackouts. A vanadium redox battery provides the storage capacity, large and small to do so.

Several individual VRB companies indicate their demand could be 20,000 MT V2O5 by 2020.